As I Lay Dying by William Faulkner

As I Lay Dying by William Faulkner

“As I Lay Dying,” a novel by William Faulkner, is a groundbreaking work of American literature that explores the Bundren family’s journey to fulfill the dying wish of their matriarch, Addie Bundren. The narrative unfolds through multiple perspectives, providing a complex and multifaceted exploration of themes such as death, family, and the human condition. Published in 1930, the novel is renowned for its innovative narrative structure, rich characterizations, and Faulkner’s distinctive stream-of-consciousness style.


**1. Narrative Structure: One of the most striking features of “As I Lay Dying” is its unconventional narrative structure. The novel comprises 59 chapters, each narrated by a different character, including family members, neighbors, and even the deceased Addie. This polyphonic structure allows Faulkner to present a mosaic of perspectives, revealing the subjective nature of truth and the varying interpretations of the events surrounding Addie’s death and the Bundren family’s subsequent journey.

**2. The Bundren Family:

  • Addie Bundren: The matriarch of the Bundren family, Addie’s death sets the novel’s events in motion. Her desire to be buried in her hometown of Jefferson becomes a posthumous journey that exposes the complexities of familial relationships.
  • Anse Bundren: The patriarch of the family, Anse is characterized by his stoic demeanor and a seemingly indifferent attitude towards the challenges the family faces. His motivations, however, become more complex as the narrative unfolds.
  • Darl Bundren: The second eldest son and a central narrator, Darl possesses a keen insight into the events surrounding the family. His introspective and often surreal narrative style adds depth to the novel.
  • Jewel Bundren: Addie’s favorite son, Jewel, is defined by his intense and unspoken devotion to his mother. His actions and interactions with the family’s challenges reveal a complex character.
  • Cash Bundren: The eldest son, Cash, is a skilled carpenter who constructs his mother’s coffin. His dedication to his work and his family reflects a sense of duty that becomes increasingly strained.
  • Vardaman Bundren: The youngest Bundren, Vardaman, grapples with the concept of death, viewing it through a child’s perspective. His narrative provides a poignant exploration of innocence and loss.

**3. Themes:

  • Death and Decay: The journey to fulfill Addie’s dying wish serves as a metaphorical and literal exploration of death and decay. The decomposition of Addie’s body and the family’s gradual disintegration mirror the broader theme of mortality.
  • Familial Bonds: Despite the dysfunction and hardships faced by the Bundrens, the novel explores the enduring bonds that connect family members. Each character’s perspective contributes to the intricate web of familial relationships.
  • Isolation and Community: The Bundrens’ journey is marked by isolation, both physical and emotional. The novel also delves into the relationship between the family and the community, highlighting the tension between individual suffering and communal indifference.
  • The Nature of Truth: Faulkner’s use of multiple perspectives challenges the notion of objective truth. Each narrator interprets events subjectively, emphasizing the elusive nature of a singular, objective reality.
  • Suffering and Sacrifice: The Bundrens endure numerous hardships on their journey, showcasing the themes of suffering and sacrifice. The characters’ motivations for enduring such trials reflect their individual perspectives on duty, love, and personal redemption.

**4. Symbolism:

  • The Coffin: Cash’s meticulous construction of Addie’s coffin becomes a symbol of both duty and obsession. The coffin’s presence throughout the journey underscores the pervasive influence of death on the narrative.
  • The River: The river serves as a recurring motif, symbolizing both life and death. The family’s crossings of the river mark significant points in their journey, mirroring the ebb and flow of existence.
  • Vardaman’s Fish: Vardaman’s obsession with turning a fish into a “wet” and “alive” fish reflects his struggle to comprehend the finality of death. The fish becomes a symbolic representation of his innocence and the disruption of that innocence by mortality.

**5. Stream of Consciousness: Faulkner’s use of stream-of-consciousness narration is a stylistic hallmark of “As I Lay Dying.” This narrative technique provides readers with direct access to characters’ inner thoughts and perceptions. Darl’s introspective and often fragmented narrative style, in particular, captures the complexity of human consciousness and contributes to the novel’s experimental and avant-garde nature.

Impact and Legacy:

“As I Lay Dying” is widely regarded as a masterpiece of American literature. Faulkner’s innovative narrative techniques, such as the use of multiple perspectives and stream of consciousness, have influenced subsequent generations of writers. The novel’s exploration of existential themes, complex characters, and the Southern Gothic tradition has cemented its place in literary history.


Upon its release, “As I Lay Dying” received mixed critical reviews. Some critics found Faulkner’s narrative experimentation challenging, while others praised the novel’s depth and originality. Over time, the novel has garnered increasing acclaim for its contribution to the evolution of American literature and its impact on the Southern literary tradition.


“As I Lay Dying” remains a seminal work that pushes the boundaries of traditional narrative structures. Faulkner’s exploration of death, family dynamics, and the human psyche creates a literary tapestry that continues to captivate readers and scholars alike. The novel’s enduring legacy lies not only in its innovative storytelling but also in its profound exploration of the human condition, leaving an indelible mark on the landscape of American literature.

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