In 1757, the Battle of Plassey was fought between the forces of the British East India Company, led by Robert Clive, and the Nawab of Bengal, Siraj-ud-Daula. The British emerged victorious, and this battle is considered to be the turning point in British colonization of India.
Over the next few decades, the British East India Company expanded its territory and control over India, and by the early 19th century, it had become the dominant power in India. The Company’s rule was marked by economic exploitation, political manipulation, and social oppression.
The period also saw the rise of Indian resistance against British rule. The first major rebellion against British rule was the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857, also known as the Indian Rebellion of 1857. The rebellion was sparked by the introduction of the Enfield rifle, which used cartridges that were greased with animal fat, offending both Hindu and Muslim sepoys (Indian soldiers) who refused to use them. The rebellion quickly spread throughout northern and central India, and although it was eventually suppressed by the British, it had a profound impact on Indian society and politics.
The period between 1757 and 1857 was also marked by important cultural and intellectual movements in India, including the Bengal Renaissance, which saw a revival of Indian art, literature, and philosophy. This period also witnessed the emergence of several notable figures, such as Raja Ram Mohan Roy, who played a crucial role in the social and cultural transformation of India.