Influence of migration on patterns of population growth and population decline
Migration is the movement of people from one place or region to another. There are two types of migration, permanent and temporary. Usually permanent migration results in a change in the population of an area. Migration occurs due to various elements categorised into ‘push’ and ‘pull’ factors.
Migration has a huge influence on the patterns of population growth and population decline. It almost always has an impact on the population of an area. The process of migration has been going on for centuries due to individuals wanting to explore, find better employment opportunities, move to areas with abundant resources etc.
Migration resulting in population growth:
Areas with attractive elements or characteristics (pull factors) like stable or developed economies, proper infrastructure, better jobs and education, adequate resources, accessible and efficient utilities etc. usually experience a lot growth in the population residing there. Migration has always been a solution for individuals seeking better opportunities, security, economic and social growth.
Economically developed countries like Britain, U.S.A, Canada, France etc. attract a lot of individuals due to their overall development. They have made a lot of progress in the fields of science and technology enabling them to provide a better or superior standard of living and substantial opportunities for personal growth. Migration resulting in an increase in population is also known as in – migration, where people move or shift from other areas to settle in these countries. Factors like the availability of better social and political conditions also contribute to in – migration or growth in the overall population.
Migration resulting in population decline:
Underdeveloped or developing economies like Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Cambodia etc. are a part of the ‘Third – world’. These regions or countries suffer from extreme poverty, widespread conflict, social and political instability and a host of other problems making them undesirable destinations for migrants. The abundance of ‘push’ factors or detrimental elements present in these nations poses a huge problem for economic and social development. There seems to be a big decline in the overall population of these areas which discourages growth on all levels. Factors like high levels of unemployment, scarce resources (food & water), inefficient infrastructure etc. deters growth in population. Individuals are driven or pushed out due to the nation’s inability to support its citizens.
LEDC’s (less developed countries) including a lot of African nations like Ethiopia, Sudan, Uganda etc. experience persistent out – migration adversely affecting the levels of population. With no scope for personal development people abandon their host nations in search of better standards of life, security, livelihood and stable atmospheres. Lack of urbanization and poor living conditions make it difficult for people to continue living in such areas. They migrate to MEDC’s (more developed countries) to get away for the stress and disturbance.
Irrespective of the ‘push’ and ‘pull’ factors characterising an area or region, whenever migration occurs it not only changes the levels of population but the age and structure of it too.