Peacemaking, peacekeeping— international relations 1918-36
Peacemaking, peacekeeping— international relations 1918-36 – Peacemaking and peacekeeping of international relations between 1918 and 1936 is mostly about all the treaties signed between this period which was the most tumultuous time of world history. The most important of these treaties was the Paris Peace Settlement. The First World War awakened the world to a need for international cooperation and foreign policies without resorting to violence.
The intention being good, the implementation was a little difficult as perceptions were different and to get everyone to cooperate was very difficult. However the peacemaking process and the peacekeeping measures have controlled another outburst of a world war.
This period can be divided into two parts, one before depression and one after. After the World War I the world was fatigued and the victims of the war were too weak to reverse the verdict. But as things worsened and with the Great Depression of 1929, intolerance and protests arose. This period saw the rise of the Japanese power and the rise of Hitler in Germany and all this resulted in the Second World War. The Fourteen Points outlined by Woodrow Wilson on January 8, 1918 brought about an international for a short period.
Some of the points outlined were continued to the next peacemaking mission after the World War II.
The Fourteen Points touched on
• Freedom of navigation
• Equality of trade conditions
• Reduction of national armaments
• Territorial demarcation
• Formation of the League of Nations
The private misunderstandings had to be discussed in the international forum called the League of Nations and this was one the most important point made by Woodrow Wilson.
The Paris Peace Settlement included treaties between the France, US and Britain, the victors and victims of World War I.
1. Treaty of Versailles signed in June 1919 was with Germany.
2. Treaty of St. Germain signed in September 1919 was with Austria.
3. Treaty of Neuilly signed in November 1919 was with Bulgaria.
4. Treaty of Trianon signed in June 1920 was with Hungary.
5. Treaty of Serves signed in August 1920 with Turkey. This Treaty was later altered as was known as Treaty of Lausanne in 1923.
All these treaties gave all the defeated countries a drubbing and this was one of the main causes for World War II. Later in the 1920s came the Ruhr Crisis, Locarno Spring and the Locarno Treaty which were mostly due to France and its fear of a growing Germany sometimes supported by Britain. With the Treaty of Locarno in 1927 Germany obtained a permanent seat in the League of Nations. In the eastern part of the world Japan invaded Manchuria, Chinese territory, and created unrest in that area. Japan eventually pulled out of the League of Nations.
There was a dispute in Abyssinia and Italy border and fighting broke out between the two countries. In October 1935 Italy invaded Abyssinia and in December 1935 Hoare-Laval Pact was formed where two-thirds of Abyssinia was offered to Mussolini of Italy. But Mussolini did not abide by the pact and conquered the whole of Abyssinia by May 1936. The peacemaking and peacekeeping missions was successful only to a certain point and it is the United Nations Organisation formed from the success and failures of the League of Nations that is now trying to maintain world peace.