Sonnet 43 by Elizabeth Barret Browning

Sonnet 43 by Elizabeth Barret Browning

Sonnet 43 by Elizabeth Barret Browning : Elizabeth Barrett Browning, a celebrated Victorian poet, left an indelible mark on the world of literature with her profound exploration of love, faith, and social issues. Among her most famous works is “Sonnet 43,” a part of her collection “Sonnets from the Portuguese,” which is renowned for its passionate expression of love. In this blog post, we will embark on an illuminating journey through the intricacies of “Sonnet 43,” unraveling the layers of meaning, poetic devices, and the enduring significance of Browning’s exquisite verses.

Background of Elizabeth Barrett Browning:

Before we delve into the analysis of “Sonnet 43,” it is essential to appreciate the context of Elizabeth Barrett Browning’s life. Born in 1806 in Durham, England, Browning was a prolific poet whose work gained prominence during the Victorian era. Her literary contributions encompassed a wide range of themes, but she is best remembered for her exploration of love, both romantic and spiritual.

Browning’s life was marked by illness and social seclusion until she met fellow poet Robert Browning, whom she eventually married. The “Sonnets from the Portuguese” sequence, published in 1850, is a collection of love sonnets dedicated to her husband, offering an intimate glimpse into their relationship.

Overview of “Sonnet 43”:

“Sonnet 43” is perhaps one of the most famous love sonnets ever written. It begins with the iconic line, “How do I love thee? Let me count the ways,” setting the tone for an exploration of the boundless dimensions of love. The sonnet, written in the Petrarchan or Italian sonnet form, comprises fourteen lines, each carefully crafted to express the speaker’s profound love for her beloved.

Line-by-Line Analysis:

Lines 1-4:

“How do I love thee? Let me count the ways. I love thee to the depth and breadth and height My soul can reach when feeling out of sight For the ends of Being and ideal Grace.”

The opening quatrain introduces the central question that echoes throughout the sonnet: how does the speaker love thee (the beloved)? The speaker then embarks on a poetic enumeration of the ways in which she loves, using spatial imagery to convey the vastness of her affection. The depth, breadth, and height symbolize the expansiveness of her love, reaching beyond the limits of physical and spiritual dimensions.

Lines 5-8:

“I love thee to the level of every day’s Most quiet need, by sun and candle-light. I love thee freely, as men strive for Right; I love thee purely, as they turn from Praise.”

The second quatrain delves into the everyday aspects of love. The speaker expresses love on a daily basis, embracing the quiet and ordinary moments. The use of “sun and candle-light” suggests a continuity of love from daylight to night, emphasizing its unwavering nature. The contrast between loving “freely” and turning away from “Praise” suggests a selfless and sincere love, detached from external validation.

Lines 9-12:

“I love thee with the passion put to use In my old griefs, and with my childhood’s faith. I love thee with a love I seemed to lose With my lost saints. I love thee with the breath,”

In the third quatrain, the speaker delves into the intensity of her love by connecting it to her past experiences. The passion that was once used in “old griefs” and the unwavering faith of childhood are now channeled into the present love. The reference to “lost saints” implies a spiritual dimension, suggesting that the speaker’s love for the beloved has replaced or surpassed the devotion once given to saints.

Lines 13-14:

“Smiles, tears, of all my life! and, if God choose, I shall but love thee better after death.”

The concluding rhymed couplet offers a resolution to the sonnet. The speaker declares that her love encompasses the entirety of her life, expressed through “smiles” and “tears.” The mention of God and the prospect of loving “thee” even “after death” elevates the love to a divine and eternal plane, transcending the boundaries of mortal existence.

Themes Explored:

1. Boundless Nature of Love:

A central theme in “Sonnet 43” is the boundless nature of love. The speaker employs vivid spatial imagery and enumerates various dimensions—depth, breadth, height—to convey the expansiveness of her affection. Love, in this sonnet, is portrayed as an all-encompassing force that transcends physical and spiritual boundaries.

2. Everyday and Timeless Love:

Browning explores the idea of love in everyday life, emphasizing its presence in the quiet and mundane moments. The sonnet suggests that true love endures through the routine of daily existence, surviving both in the light of day and the shadows of night. Additionally, the mention of loving “thee” after death adds a timeless quality to the love depicted in the poem.

3. Transformative Power of Love:

The speaker’s connection of past experiences, such as “old griefs” and the faith of childhood, to her present love highlights the transformative power of love. Love becomes a force that not only endures but also reshapes and repurposes emotions from the speaker’s past, creating a sense of continuity and evolution.

4. Spiritual and Eternal Love:

Browning infuses a spiritual dimension into the sonnet, referencing God and the prospect of loving beyond death. The love portrayed is not confined to the earthly realm but extends into the divine and eternal. This spiritual aspect adds depth to the poem, elevating the love between the speaker and the beloved to a sacred and transcendent level.

Poetic Devices and Style:

Browning’s poetic style in “Sonnet 43” is characterized by a combination of lyrical beauty, vivid imagery, and a meticulous use of language. The sonnet form itself, with its fourteen lines and structured rhyme scheme, provides a framework for the exploration of love in a systematic and expressive manner.

The use of metaphor and spatial imagery, such as “depth,” “breadth,” and “height,” enriches the poem, allowing the reader to visualize the magnitude of the speaker’s love. The repetition of the phrase “I love thee” at the beginning of each quatrain serves as a rhythmic and emphatic device, reinforcing the central theme.


“Sonnet 43” by Elizabeth Barrett Browning is a timeless masterpiece that continues to resonate with readers across generations. Through the meticulous crafting of language, vivid imagery, and profound emotional expression, Browning elevates the exploration of love to an extraordinary level.

The sonnet’s enduring appeal lies in its ability to capture the universal experience of love while infusing it with a sense of transcendence and spirituality. As readers, we are invited to contemplate the boundless dimensions of love, its transformative power, and the timeless nature of genuine and enduring affection. “Sonnet 43” stands as a testament to Browning’s poetic genius and her ability to articulate the complexities of the human heart with unmatched eloquence.

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