Environmental Issues in India

Environmental Issues in India 1.Environmental Hazards Environmental Issues that Challenge India – When a natural process or activities of human reach beyond particular time limits or intolerable magnitude, it results into environmental hazards. It results in huge losses as it is difficult to manage or adjust the situation or calamity. Environmental hazards are of different ... Read More

Settlements in India

Settlements in India: 1. Introduction It is in the Indus River Valley that civilization in India first started with Harappa and Mohenjo Daro the 2 highly advanced and reasonably sophisticated cities coming up alongside the river. The Aryans invaded this civilization by 1500 BCE. They traveled into India and journeyed as far as south India, ... Read More

India’s Cultural Setting

India’s Cultural Setting 1. Origin of Mankind More than a million years back, early humans came from Africa to India. This is indicated by a discovery of around 3528 Acheulian stone tools mainly cleavers and handaxes, in Tamil Nadu’s Kortallayar  River Baisn at Attirampakkam, a prehistoric site. This research was conducted by a non-profit Sharma ... Read More

Economic Planning in India

Economic Planning in India Economic Planning in India – Gradual changes are being seen in the characteristics of many urban and rural Indian settlements. Special inequalities, in physical, economic and social development in the country can be reduced by smart planning by the government and adopting a regional approach. The Planning Concept The planning process ... Read More


1.Evolution of Industries Development of industries is vital to human and socio-development in any nation.  India is well known for its household and cottage industries all across the globe. Demand for silk and muslin products and pottery was very high before industrial development in modern India. Industrial growth got extremely hampered with the British policies ... Read More

Transport – Communication and Trade

Transport – Communication and Trade Transport – Communication and Trade – The transportation system has been revolutionized completely in India both internally and externally. Waterways, roads, airways and railways are the main transportation means in India. Rail Transport In the recent times, improvement in communications has played a major role in India’s internal development. Various ... Read More

Spatial Organization of Agriculture

Spatial Organization of Agriculture 1.Cropping Patterns Spatial Organization of Agriculture – The cropping systems and patterns of cropping in India are dependent on various factors like economic, social and physical. The finest farming systems and patterns for improving agricultural production are adopted in India. Efforts are taken to retain soil fertility at all times. A ... Read More


Agriculture: 1. Land Utilization A scare resource is land. No matter what the practical or competing purpose, the supply is fixed. With increasing economic growth and human population, the demand for land is only increasing. The term ‘land use pattern’ means the arrangement or layout of uses of land area. Land is used for various ... Read More

Energy Resources

Energy Resources 8 Energy Resources: 1.Sources of Conventional Energy Energy is used by human beings for doing different activities and for their existence. Conventional energy sources are of different types. One vital component in the infrastructure of economy, is energy, be it sectors like economical, agriculture, residential or industry. Energy resources are classified into conventional ... Read More

Natural Resources in India

Natural Resources in India: 1.Natural Resources Things given by nature are termed as natural resources. These resources are found under and above the earth’s surface. Natural resources found in India include mineral ores, land, animals, fisheries, forests and energy sources like uranium, gas, petroleum, etc which play a vital role in the economic structure and ... Read More

Types of Soil

Types of Soil: Soils in India are divided into 8 major groups as per the All India Soil Survey Committee set up in 1953 by the ICAR – Indian Council of Agricultural Research. One valuable and important resource for each and every human being is soil, a mixture of organic materials and rock debris. Soil ... Read More

The Natural Drainage System of India

The Natural Drainage System of India The Natural Drainage System of India – India is a land of rivers. Both the 400 small and big rivers found here are divided into 200 small and 23 large river basins. In both the river systems there are differences in water levels and the drainage patterns. The water ... Read More

Structure of India

Introduction To study the geological structure of India, it is important to understand a number of points including the character and types of slopes and rocks, availability of minerals, the chemical and physical properties of soils, availability of water resources below the ground, the surface type, etc. Understanding about the geological time scale is also ... Read More

Global Warming – A Warning

What Is Global Warming When average temperature of the earth’s surface increases, it leads to global warming. The effect of greenhouse gases causes global warming. The greenhouse effect is caused by deforestation or the burning of fuel fossils leading to emissions of carbon dioxide and other kinds of greenhouse gases. Heat gets trapped instead being ... Read More

Population Explosion

Growth of the world’s population and associated problems   World Population: According to the United States Census Bureau (USCB) the population of the world has reached an estimated 7 billion in 2014. The growth rate peaked in 1960 and has been growing ever since. The number is expected to reach 9 – 10 billion by ... Read More
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