World War I was a clash of two groups of powers, the Allied Forces and the Central Powers. The Allied Force won in the war and the Central Powers had to pay for all the damages. The first plan was to disintegrate the coalition of the Central Powers and then sign treaties with each state. This ensured that there was complete breakdown of power and a false guarantee that such uprisings would not happen again - false because all these treaties did not prevent World War II. The Treaty of Trianon was signed between the Allied Forces and Kingdom of Hungary.
Importance of Hungary
Hungary was progressing economically very well during late 19th century into the twentieth century. Hungary had good relationship with Germany, another economic powerhouse in Europe. Europe had many ethnic groups and each of them was in nation building process whereby they wanted their own nation. However In Hungary it was a different scenario. For almost a thousand years all the ethnic groups there were living peacefully. The borders of Hungary remained the same for those many years. In all ways Hungary was a haven in Europe. The peaceful nation coupled with the economic developments proved to be a threat for the bigger nations like France and Russia. With the World War I France started instilling anti-Hungarian feeling amongst non-Magyar speaking Hungarians. When Hungary was defeated in the war the Allied Powers made sure that Hungary was devastated in all possible ways.
Terms of The Treaty
Treaty of Trianon was signed on June 4th, 1920 at the Trianon Palace at Versailles in France. Hungary on one side and the Allied Forces on the other side signed this treaty. Signing of this treaty was delayed because the Allies did not want sign a treaty with an unstable communist and then moderate governments of Hungary. On January 16th 1920 Allies recognized the new government and then signed the Treaty of Trianon.
- Hungary lost two-thirds of its land and two-thirds of its population as well.
- The doctrine of “self-determination of peoples” was adopted where the non Humgarians could chose their nation.
- Hungary had to part with 35,000 volunteers and 3 patrol boats.
- They had to pay 200 million gold crowns as war damages.
- Like the other treaties the Treaty of Trianon also contributed to the formation of Poland, Czechoslovakia, Romania and Yugoslavia.
The Treaty of Trianon was aimed at breaking down that mighty state and it was done successfully. The newly formed Hungary was completely landlocked with no access to sea at all. This affected the economy of the new state. Railway lines which ran freely inside Hungary were now spread over many countries. Most of its native people were spread into the newly formed states. During the pre-war period Hungary used to export food grains. After the treaty the production dropped and it had to pay tariffs for the extra grains coming in. After all this Hungary’s economy took a dip and it could not pay back the damages that was fixed for it. As it was treated badly, Hungary joined the Nazi Germany during World War II.
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