What Are Weather Stations
It is very helpful to have an update on the weather conditions if you have to go out on a picnic or have some outdoor plans. You may expect the weather to be sunny and bright but instead get heavy rain showers. It you know in advance what kind of weather you are going to face then it surely can prove to be very advantageous for you. Once you know about the conditions of weather you can either cancel or set your plans for going outdoors. There are a number of weather stations that are popularly used.
What Is A Weather Station
A weather station provides information on climatic conditions and weather. It is a facility located on sea or land with equipment and instruments that can help in giving information on weather. It helps in studying about climate and weather conditions.
Where Are Weather Stations Located
Weather stations are located at places where it is possible to collect only reliable and accurate data. Hence it is ensured that the no obstacles like shadows cast or the wind obstruct or block flow of data. Besides this, a fence also surrounds the weather station so that the equipment does not get damaged and stray animals do not get in. The Stevenson Screen is an important part which is used to hold the thermometers at the weather stations. Information gathered from the weather stations as well as the other sources is termed as weather charts or synoptic charts.
Kinds Of Measurements Taken At Weather Stations
Different kinds of measurements are taken which include amount of precipitation, temperature, direction of the wind, barometric pressure, speed of wind and humidity. When measurement of wind is taken it has to be free of any kind of obstructions. In the case of measuring humidity and temperature it should be free from insolation or solar radiation. Automated observations can be taken all through the day at least once during 60 minutes. Manual observations are taken one time, every day.
Other Kinds Of Instruments
Weather stations also employ other kinds of instruments to measure weather. They include:
• Ceilometer – It is used to measure ceiling of clouds
• Present Precipitation / Weather Identification Sensor – It is used to identify falling precipitation
• Transmissometer – It is used to measure visibility
• Disdrometer – It is used to measure the distribution of size of water drops
Nowadays there are sophisticated weather stations which also measure temperature of the soil, ultraviolet index, temperature of water in rivers, ponds, creeks and lakes, solar radiation, wetness of leaves and other kinds of data, occasionally.
Types Of Weather Stations
• Personal Weather Stations
A digital console is involved in a personal weather station. It provides readouts of collected data. The consoles are interfaced to a personal computer where data is uploaded, stored and collected to systems related to data distribution, data ingestion or websites. A personal weather station is operated with the sole purpose of availing knowledge by the owner and for enjoyment. Data obtained can also be shared with others with the use of amateur radio or internet for the purpose of distribution and data compilation.
• Wireless Weather Station
To make this wireless weather station work, batteries are used. Data is transmitted to the storage unit and the central display with the help of sensors present in the weather station unit. There is no need setting up complicated wiring around your house, since it is a wireless system.
• Home Weather Stations
The weather reports that are generally available are for major cities. You may not be able to get an idea on specific weather conditions in the area you stay in. In such a case you can determine weather, with the help of a home weather station. You can get an idea on outdoor weather conditions and that too in the comfort of your home. Depending upon the information you want to obtain from the weather station and the type of design, accordingly you can select a suitable type of home weather station.
The home weather station is best used in small offices and homes. To measure solar radiation, wind and rain gauges, the home weather station is basically a kind of software which is available with a set of instruments like anemometer and barometer to determine weather conditions.
• Professional Weather Station
This professional weather station is very similar to weather software used in homes and small offices. The best thing about the professional weather station is that accurate information is provided by it. It comes with some additional instruments for measuring other kinds of information related to moisture in soil, dew, ultraviolet rays, temperature of water and soil, etc.
• Digital Weather Stations
Technology is improving by the day. Accordingly there has been development in the making of weather stations. The latest invention is the digital weather station. In fact they are technology of the next generation when it comes to getting updates on weather. Information availed from the digital weather stations is very similar to updates on weather monitored by meteorologists. Information obtained from the digital weather station is more detailed as well and comes along with certain alarms for setting warnings on storm signals etc.
When you have weather stations of these types you no longer have to rely on news updates or the internet. Any unanticipated changes in weather can thus be brought to notice and you will be in a position to plan out activities for any day in a better way.
Instruments Used For Measuring Weather Conditions
The following instruments are used typically at the weather stations.
• Anemometer - It is used for measuring the speed of wind
• Thermometer - It is used for measuring surface temperature of the sea and air
• Hygrometer - It is used to measure humidity
• Rain Gauge - It is used for measuring precipitation of liquid or a particular time period
• Barometer - It is used for measuring pressure of the atmosphere
• Buoys and ships are used for measuring conditions of weather at sea. Wave period, height of the waves and the temperature of the sea surface are some of the meteorological quantities measured to find out weather conditions at sea.