How The Culture Set Up By Aryans Is Still Seen In India
When the Aryan civilization came to an end, not much physical evidence was left behind by them. Archeological monuments and great buildings were not constructed by them. The ancient civilization of the Hindu-Aryans is based mainly on the holy texts of the Vedas and the heroic myths which were written during the first millennium BC’s second half.
The Aryan people were herdsmen of the semi nomadic and federated type. From Central Asia, they spread to the west and east both and along with them they took their sky gods as well. First of all they settled in Punjab after which they moved to the Ganges Valley. The Aryans are considered to be ancestors of the Celts, Teutons and pre-Homeric Greeks.
The Aryans marked their arrival with the distribution of Painted Gray Ware pottery as indicated by many of the archeologists. Aryavarta is the term used for the lands occupied by the Aryans. They set up small towns and cities by clearing up small patches of land available in the forests.
The Aryans were successful due to superiority of weapon technology used for conquering people especially the Dravidians in Southern Asia. Advanced weapons in bronze, iron and chariots drawn by horses were used by them. In human history the first aggressors were the charioteers. It was around 1500 BC that from the steppes of northern part of Iran, the Aryan charioteers came and conquered India and founded the Shang Dynasty in China as well thus setting up the first state in the world. They conquered the civilizations of the Indus River, Mohenjo-Daro and
The iron technology developed during 500 BC leading to clearance of land for agriculture and rapid urbanization. In the Aryan kingdom, there was a ruling family from which the Buddha or Siddharta Gautama emerged around 600 BC. Coins in copper and silver started being used then.
The Aryans are well marked for their language, Sanskrit. In the world, it is considered to be one of the most refined of all languages. Even for computers used in today’s time, it is considered to be the best language, mainly for its exclusive clarity. It’s a highly metrical and musical language, possessing the most sophisticated and oldest grammatical framework that goes back before the time of the Buddha. Even today mantras and divine words are chanted in Sanskrit language in various religious ceremonies.
The Aryans spoke an Indo European language called Vedic Sanskrit. In fact they were the early speakers of this language which was a base for all the languages in Bangladesh, Pakistan, India as well as in Europe. The linguistic evidence that is available as of today indicates that their origin was from the Steppes of Central Asia. A warrior aristocracy led them. The Rig Veda has records of their legendary deeds. The Aryans were successful in uniting a wide variety of linguistic and ethnic groups under a culture that was highly integrated. They ensured that the variety and rich diversity was not eliminated traces of which can be found even today in India.
In Sanskrit, the term ‘arya’ means ‘noble’. The chariot drawn by horses was first introduced by them. They also introduced the Vedas to modern India which became their ancient sacred books. Between 1500 BC and 1200 BC the Aryans invaded India and moved to Western Europe and Mediterranean. The Indus civilization was destroyed during this time.
Development Of Civilization
After the collapse the Aryan invasion, as of today, ancient India has emerged as a new model. The development of civilization is indigenous in many ways. Domestication of cattle and other animals and agricultural development followed soon after. Agricultural activities and the use of metals including copper and iron increased in India for developing towns and villages. Precision in measures and weights, sophistication in crafts and arts and complex metallurgy and agriculture, construction of massive cites is seen in India as of today which has been influenced by Aryan civilization.
Vedic nature was accepted in the pre Harappan and Harappan civilization thus creating a revolution in India and in the rest of the world also. The Harappan Vedic culture in India is considered the most central, largest and oldest of all cultures of the world. Continuity of this culture is preserved in today’s times.
Hindu Religion And Aryans
The four major castes seen in the Aryan society including the priestly caste - the Brahmins, the warrior caste – Kshatriyas, the farmer and trader caste – the Vaisyas and the laborers – the Sudras - have been described in the vedas. In the history of Aryans, religious and political superiority was gained by Brahmins over the Kshatriyas.
Origins of the Hindu religion and Hindu fire rituals can be ascribed to the Aryans. They worshipped nature and revered many gods. Around trees, a number of Aryan structures were constructed. Religious ceremonies were performed only by the priestly class or Brahmins which still continues in India today. Rituals presided upon were quite complex and involved. A priceless treasure, in terms of vedic literacy is still preserved from the ancient Aryan ancestors. Brahmins chant the vedas today as much as they did during the Indus-Saraswati culture around four thousand years ago.
The Aryans were nomads and depended on livestock and cows for food. Cows were considered as a sign of wealth. They also loved poetry, dance and music. They were responsible for giving the epic poems like the Mahabharata and Ramayana. Rather than in written form, their work was passed down orally.
Astronomy And Vedas
The astronomical lore contained in the vedic texts was an interesting one. The astronomical sightings of the solstices and equinoxes which keep changing due to the earth’s rotation on its axis, were the basis of the Vedic calendar. Astronomy’s sophisticated system existed right from the time of the Harappan culture when Vedic culture existed.
Adopting Various Concepts
Various concepts followed during the vedic period, including religiousness, tolerance and forbearance, development, global familyhood, unity in diversity, welfare, coordination and cohesiveness and non violence, have influenced India greatly. Indian social and cultural life attained direction due to the concept of ‘Live and Let Live’. The main aim of life as achieving peace and continual progress and establishment of karma or deeds and Jnana or knowledge has also been learnt from the Vedic era.