Home Analysis Notes on Germany (1919-1945) – Depth Study

Notes on Germany (1919-1945) – Depth Study

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Germany - 1900-1914
• Powerful Military
• Major Trade Partner
• Prosperity And Glory
• Kaiser’s Dictatorship/Achievements Successful

Germany - 1914-1918
• Dismembered Military
• Flu Epidemic
• Meager Rations
• Defeated Nation Was Forced To Accept The War Guilt

Armistice: The Laying Down Of Arms (1918)
Signing Of Terms And Official Documentation (1919)

Weimar Republic (Setting Up A Democracy) – What Were The Reactions
1. Kaiser Challenged The Change
2. Sailors Mutinied In Kiel
3. Socialists (Kaiser’s Enemies) Led Uprisings
4. Bavaria Was Declared A Socialist Republic
5. Kaiser Abdicated In 1918
6. Ebert (Socialist) Came To Power And Signed Armistice
7. Ebert Promised Freedom Of Speech/ Expression And Better Working Conditions
8. People Did Not Welcome Shift Of Power From Autocracy To Democracy

Ebert’s Challenges:

Ebert Comes To Power – 1919
Opposition From The Left Wing (Communists – Wanted A Revolution) And Right Wing (Kaiser’s Men- Opposed From The Judiciary, Army, Civilian Services, Industry)

Right Wing Opposition
• Kaiser’s Supporters
• Preferred Dictatorship/ Autocracy
• Took Pride In Military Strength
• Favoured Territorial Expansion
• Proud Of German Industry

Left Wing Opposition
Spartacists
- Left Wingers – Communists
- Led By Luxemburg And Liebnecht
- Inspired By Bolsheviks (Extremists)
- Against Democracy
- Believed In Setting Up Workers Councils/Soviets

Freikorps
- Paramilitary
- Opposed The Spartacists

What Was The Kapp Putsch?
• Led By Wolfgang Kapp
• 5000 Freikorps Went To Berlin
• Army Refused To Fire On Freikorps
• Situation Saved By Berlin Workers Who Went On Strike
• No Transport, Water Supply Or Power
• Putsch Was Failure

About The Second Communist Rebellion In Bavaria
• Eisner Headed A Socialist Government
• Eisner And Ebert Were Allies
• Eisner Was Murdered- There Was A Communists Rebellion To Set Up A Soviet Republic
• Ebert And Freikorps Crushed The Communist Rebellion

The Treaty Of Versailles (Recap)
What Did Germany Lose?
1. 10% Of Land
2. All Overseas Colonies
3. 12.5% Population
4. 16% Coal
5. 48% Iron Industry
6. Army Reduced To 100,000 And No Air Force
7. Germany Forced To Take Blame (War Guilt Clause)

Economic Disaster And The Ruhr
• Germany Had To Pay 6600 Million Pounds To Allies
• Announced In 1921
• It Was 2% Of Germany’s Total Output

The Ruhr
• Installment Of 50 Million Paid In 1921 But Not In 1922 (Reparations)
• France Had War Debts To Clear
• France And Belgium Troops Invaded The Industrial Area- They Claimed Goods And Raw Materials
• Ebert Orders Passive Resistance (Strike)
• French Expels 100,000 Workers And Kills 100+

Hyperinflation
• Lack Of Production Resulted In Drop In Currency Value
• Ruhr= No Goods= No Trade= Devaluation Of Currency= Governments Prints Worthless Money
• Government Pays Up To 2200 Million In Reparation
• Industrialists Pay Off Their Debts
• More Money But Less Goods = High Prices = Worthless Money
• Less Supply, More Demand

Gustav Stresemann - 1923-1929
• Called Off Resistance In Ruhr
• Replaced Redundant/ Useless Currency With Rentenmark
• Negotiated The Dawes Plan And The Young Plan
• Negotiated The Reparation Payments

Stresemann’s Achievements And Problems

Achievements
Economic
• More Support (Right Winger)
• Dawes Plan (Us Loans And Negotiations On Reparations) = Industrialisation = Increased Production = Increased Trade = Increased Profits
Culture
• Encouraged Artists, Writers, Poets
• Revival Of Bauhaus Architecture
• Revival Of German Cinema
• Encouraged Night Life: Clubs, Dance Bands
Politics
• Political Stability
• Being A Right Winger, He Enjoyed Popular Support
• Won 1928 Election
• Enjoyed Popular Support
Foreign Policy
• Locarno Treaties (Germany’s Western Borders)
• German Membership In The League Of Nations (1926)
• Attempted To Negotiate Reparations And Eastern Frontiers
• Young Plan Reduced Reparation And Demilitarized Rhineland

Problems
Economic
• Dawes And Young Plan Increased Germany’s Debts
• Industrialists, Real Estate Investors, Workers And Big Industries (Unions) Profited
• Peasants And Pensioners Neglected…Why?
- During World War 1 There Was Overproduction
-After War – Surplus
- No Market/ Trade
- Losses Led To No Repayment Of Loans
- Indebtedness
• Small Businesses Threatened By Jew Owned Department Stores
Culture
• Moral Decline (American Immigrants And Jewish Artists)
• Wandervogel Movement (Return To Germany’s Traditional Values)

Contemporary Politics
• Nazis And Communists Built Their Party Organisations
• 1923-1929 There Were Four Chancellors
• 30% Votes Opposed The Republic
• 1926 Hindenburg (Military Veteran) Elected As President

Opposition To The Foreign Policy
• Nationalists Opposed The Signing Of The Locarno Treaties And The Joining Of The League Of Nations
• Locarno Treaties Led To The Nationalists’ Opposition Because They Were Against The Acceptance Of The Treaty Of Versailles
• Communists Began To Plot

Hitler And The Nazi Party
• 1919 Nazi Party Led By Anton Drexler
• Workers Party
• Adolf Hitler Joins And Is Put In Charge Of Propaganda Because Of His Oratory Skills
• Twenty Five Point Programme
-Abolition Of The Treaty Of Versailles
-Anschluss
-Elimination Of Jews From Germany (Anti- Semitism)
-Large Industries And Businesses Were Nationalized (Communist Support)
• Provision For Pensioners (Focus On The Laymen)
• Hitler Replaces Drexler

The S.A And The S.S
SA
• Storm Troopers
• Brown Shirts
• Main Job: Disrupt Party Meetings Of Opponents And Protect Nazi Party Meetings
• Increased Employment (Ex Army)
SS
• Fanatics
• Personal Commitment To Hitler
• Led By Hendrich Himmler
• Overthrew Sa (Paramilitary Led By Rohm)
• Highly Trained
• 2 Responsibilities
-Destroy Opposition
-Promote And Secure Racial Policies
• 2 Bodies
-Death’s Head Units (Concentration Camps)
-Waffen SS- Fought Alongside The Army

Munich Putsch 1923
• Hitler Hijacked A Local Government Meeting And Announced Leadership Of Bavaria
• Joined By Ludendorff
• SA Took Over Government Buildings
• Weimar Forces Hit Back- 16 Nazis Were Killed
• Hitler Escaped, Ludendorff Imprisoned And Charged With Treason (Going Against Government)
• Hitler Also Charged With Treason And Publicized His Ideology
• 9 Months In Landsberg Castle
• Writes Mein Kampf

Hitler’s Plan Of Action - 1923
• Work With Democratic System To Break It Down
• Begin Recruitment Drives (Provide Employment)
• Start Youth Organizations (Involve The Youth)- Outcome
• Contested For The Reichstag Elections In 1924
• Result: Won 32 Seats

Nazis And Workers (Communists)

• Workers Supported The Communists
• Workers Supported The Socialist Party Spd
• Nazis Had More Support From Peasants, And Small Business Owners
• Nazis Promise The Peasants Prosperity On Coming To Power
• Contrasted Peasant Lifestyle With Decadence In The Cities, Blamed The Jews
• Focused On The Support From Conservatives

1929-1930 Great Depression

• American Stock Markets Crash
• Worldwide Trade Affected
• Germany Forced To Repay Loans
• Result:
-Unemployment
-Economic Instability
-No Production/ Trade
-Lowered Standard Of Living
-Poverty

Nazi Campaigning
• Germany Under One Leader
• Back To Traditional Values
• No To Unpopular Or Unsupported Policies
• Blamed National Criminals (Jews, November Criminals, Communists)
• Opposed Democracy
• Propaganda, Rallies- Show Of Strength
• SA And SS Suggested Order In Contrast With Unruly Communists And Police Confrontations
• SA Enjoyed Support Of Police And Army When Disrupting Meetings Of Opponents
• Organized Soup Kitchens
• Hostel Facilities For The Unemployed
• Oratory Skills Of Hitler
• Nazi Party Represented As A Modern Party

Negative Cohesion
• Identification Of Common Enemies
• Join Power To Fight The Common Enemy

Emergency Powers

-Only In Case Of A National Emergency
-The President Possesses This Power
-Does Not Need To Go Through Parliament To Enact Laws

Nazis And Democracy
• Depression Of 1929-1930 Weakened The Weimar Government
• Political And Economic Instability
• 1930
-Bruning Was Chancellor
-Announced Policies: Cut Down Government Spending, Social Welfare Costs, Urged Germans To Make Sacrifices
-In Opposition The SPD Left The Reichstag

Historians Believe:
-Bruning Was Trying To Gain Support Of Allies To Reconsider Reparations
-Bruning Was Afraid Of The Recommence Of Hyperinflation
Result: Bruning Gave Emergency Powers To Hindenburg

What Happened In Germany?
-Elections Of 1931-1932
-Divided Reichstag
-People Disgusted With Politicians Fighting Over Positions In The Cabinet
-Bruning Depended On Hindenburg To Use Emergency Powers To Enact His Policies
-Germany Was In The Grip Of Depression (National Income Fell And Increased Unemployment)
-People Viewed The Democratic Government Critically

Negative Cohesion- Communist Threat
• Communist Threat
-People Feared A Communist Revolution
-Communists Party Members Broke Up Meetings Of Opposition
-Sa Countered The Communists In Street Outbursts
-Businessmen Feared Central Government Control Of Business If The Communists Came To Power
-Big Industrialists Feared The Emergency Of Trade Unions If The Communists Came To Power And Funded The Nazis
-Farmers/Peasants Feared Losing Their Land If The Communists Came To Power

1933- Hitler Becomes Chancellor
• 1932 Elections: The Nazis Were The Single Largest Party
• Hitler Took Advantage Of Political Instability And Popular Nazi Support And Demanded The Post Of Chancellor
• Hindenburg Refused And Made His Friend Von Papen The Chancellor
• Hindenburg Assumed Emergency Powers To Enact Policies To Handle The Economic Crisis
• Hindenburg Called For Another Election In November 1932

Assuming Power
• Nazis Won – Became The Largest Party
• Nazis Lost 2 Million Votes And 38 Seats
• Hitler Threatened With Suicide
• Hindenburg Refused To Give In To His Second Demand To Become Chancellor
• Hindenburg Appointed Schleicher Chancellor And Von Papen Remained Advisor
• Without Reichstag Support, Schleicher Was Forced To Resign
• Hindenburg Had Already The Initiated The Shift From Democracy To Autocracy (Emergency Powers)
• Hindenburg And Von Papen Met With Politicians And Industrialists And Hitler Was Chosen As Chancellor
• They Believed That They Could Control Hitler’s Extremist Political Attitude

Hitler’s Dictatorship

Reichstag Fire
• Hitler Called For An Election In March 1933 To Win A Nazi Majority
• Propaganda: Speeches Rallies And Processions
• Hitler Had Access To State Media And Street Control
• 27th Feb 1933- Reichstag Fire
• Hitler Blamed The Communists
• Hitler Demanded And Was Given Emergency Powers From Hindenburg To Handle The Situation
• Emergency Powers Were Used To Arrest Communists And Frighten Voters
• In The Subsequent Elections Nazis Emerged With More Seats In The Reichstag
• Hitler Used The SA And SS To Intimidate Citizens And Politicians
• Hitler Demanded That Hindenburg Empower Him With The Enabling Act
• Spd Vetoed Hitler’s Demand
• Catholic Party Supported Nazis

Nazis In Action:
• Hitler Adopted The Policy Of Force- Ban On Trade Unions, No New Parties. He Offered:
-Concessions, May Day (Workers), Employment Policy/Law
-Compromise - Concordat
• All Opposition Dealt With At Concentration Camps Manned By The Ss
The Night Of The Long Knives:
• Hitler Viewed Rohm As A Potential Opponent/ Rival
• 29-30 June 1933 - The SS Men Arrested Rohm And 400 Others
• Hitler Accused Rohm Of Treason
• Hitler Executed Schleicher And Rohm
• Hitler Appeased Hindenburg And The Army
• 2nd August 1934- Army Pledged Personal Loyalty

How Did The Nazis Control Germany
1. Created Totalitarian State
2. Crushed Opposition

Gestapo:
• Secret Police
• Led By Heydrich
• Could Arrest Citizens On Suspicion
• Could Imprison Without Trial

Police And Courts
• Top Jobs Held By Nazis Reporting To Himmler
• Police Secretly Kept A Watch On Opposition
• They Were Allowed To Ignore Crimes Committed By Nazis
• Magistrates, Judges And Courts Were Under Strict Nazi Control

Concentration Camps
• Specifically Built In Rural Areas
• Run By SS’s Death Head Units
• Limited Food
• Hard Labour
• Random Executions
• Prison For Any Nazi Opponent (Jews, Communists, Socialists)

Nazi’s Opposition And Successes

Nazi’s And Opposition
• Opponents Imprisoned Or Killed
• Others Forced To Submit

Nazi Successes
• People Readily Exchanged Political And Social Freedom For Work And Foreign Policy Success
• Enjoyed Economic Recovery
• Supported Nazi Opposition To Decadence And Communists
• People Believed That Nazi Policies Were For The Good Of The People

Economic Fears That Resulted In Submission
• Feared Losing Jobs If They Opposed The Nazis
• Businessmen Who Did Not Fund The Nazi Party Lost Trade And Commerce
• Kept Their Heads Down
• Ss And Sd (Special Security Squad) Secretly Kept Track Of Opposition

July Bomb Plot
• 1944 - Many Army Officers Opposed Hitler’s Leadership
• They Blamed Him For Germany’s Defeat In Wwii
• Von Stauffenburg Hid A Bomb In Hitler’s Conference Room
• Plan To Take Over Germany
• Hitler Survived

Nazis And The Church
• 1933 Concordat: Church Retained Hold On Schools And Promised To Stay Out Of German Politics
• Hitler Attempted To Bring Together The Protestant Churches Under One Reich Church (State Approved)
• Traditionalists Opposed And Wanted To Return To The Original Church
• Hitler Encouraged The Pagan German Faith Movement Opposing The Church

Opposition - The Church
• Bishop Galen Opposed Nazi Atrocities Forcing Them To Temporarily Stop
• Protestants Led By Niemoller, Bonhoeffer, The Leading Protests Were Silenced
• Bonhoeffer Contacted The Allies/Police/Army Men Who Opposed Nazism

Propaganda
• Nothing Negative/Opposing Nazism Was Ever Made Public
• Only Positive Things Were Publicized
• Maintained Hitler’s Image As Dictator
• Goebbels Censored Publicity And Opinions Made Public

Nuremburg Rallies
• Took Place Every Summer
• Marches
• Bands
• Speeches
• Banners
• Presented Nazi Regime As A Great Movement
• Propagated Popular Nazi Support
• Order Out Of Chaos

1936 Olympics
• National And International Propaganda Opportunity
• Wanted To Showcase The Superiority Of The Aryan Race
• Countries Such As Usa Wanted To Boycott (Anti-Semitism)
• To Gain Support The Nazis Included One Jew In The Team
• Showcased - Stadium, Lighting, Television Cameras, Plots- Electronic Devices (Timing)
• Promoted Germany As A Successful, Modernized Nation
• Army And Ss Kept Guard

Media
• Nazis Controlled Publicity
• Mein Kampf Was A Best Seller ()
• No Books Published Without Goebbels’s Consent
• Book Burning Campaign- Burned Books With Anti-Nazi Content
• Artists/Writers Were Allowed To Present Only Pro-Nazi Content
• Newspapers- No Printing Of Anti-Nazi Ideas
• Jewish Journalists And Publishers Out Of Work
• Cinema- All Films Had To Have A Pro-Nazi Message
• Foreign Films Were Censored
• Posters Were Used To Promote Ideals
• Jazz Music Was Banned
• Radios Were Made Available
• Goebbels Was Helped By Ss And Gestapo

Employment
• Nazis Developed Policies To Tackle Unemployment
• Nazi Policies Were Deployed With Commitment And A Lot Of Energy
• National Labour Service Employed People For Public Works
• Railway Network Throughout Germany Was Developed
• House Building And Re-Building Programmes Were Initiated
• Conscription Reduced Unemployment
• Re-Armament Programmes Generated New Employment Opportunities
• Luftwaffe Generated Employment For Engineers And Designers
• Industrial Workers Gained From
-Association With Hitler Through Propaganda
-Strength Through Joy (Kdf) - Cheap Cinema Tickets And Other Incentives
-Nazi Promise - All Workers Would Own A Beatle With Investment Of 5 Marks A Week
-Beauty Of Labour Movement - Better Workplaces And Facilities

Negatives Of Nazi Effort To Decrease Unemployment
• Spd Ceased To Operate. Workers Lost Support
• Workers Lost The Right To Strike Or Be Part Of Trade Unions
• All Workers Had To Join The General Labour Front (Daf) That Kept Control
• Workers In Some Areas Could Not Move On For Better Opportunities
• Even Though Prices Were Controlled By The Nazis, Wages Were Not Increased
• Workers Unhappy About The Standard Of Living

Farming Communities And The Reich Entailed Farm Law
• Hitler Introduced The Reich Food Estate: Bought All Agricultural Produce And Distributed The Same To Markets Across Germany
• This Guaranteed Markets And Prices
Law:
• Guaranteed The Farmers Ownership Of Their Lands
• Banks Could Not Seize Land If Farmers Did Not Pay Back Loans Or Mortgages
• Blood And Soil Propaganda
• German Farmers Being Superior In Race And Backbone Of Envisioned German Empire In The East

However:
• Reich Food Estate Gave The Same Rewards To Enterprising Farmers As The Less Efficient Ones
• Reich Entailed Farm Law Discouraged Banks Lending Money To Farming Community
• Reich Entailed Farm Law Proposed That Only Eldest Child Inherited Farm Which Resulted In The Youth Leaving Rural Areas To Work In German Industries

How Did The Middle Class Businesses Benefit From Nazi Policies?
• Communist Threat To Middle Class Business Owners Was Reduced By Nazis
• Small Businesses Benefited From Rearmament Programme- Generated Work And Employment
However:
• Big Department Stores That Robbed Smaller Enterprises Of Business Were Not Shut Down

How Did The Big Businesses Benefit From Nazi Policies?
• Benefitted From Ban On Strikes And Unions
• Big Chemical Industries Thrived On The Need For:
-Explosives
-Fertilizer For The Agricultural Needs Of The Country
• Companies Prospered Due To Nazi Policies And Incentives

Volksgemeinschaft
• National Community
• Workers And Farmers Could Envision Themselves As Part Of The Larger German Community
• Everyone Pledged Loyalty To Hitler And Germany
• Encouraged A Pride In The ‘Claimed’ Racial And Cultural Superiority
• While Initially Germans Did Not Welcome The Loss Of Individuality, They Later Accepted The Ideology

Nazis And The Youth
• School Curriculum Controlled
• Students Had To Learn:
-The History Of Germany
- Why They Needed To Distrust The Jews
-How To Respect And Honor The Fuhrer
-That They Were Superior As Aryans
-That The Jews And Slavs Were Sub-Human
• Movements: Hitler Youth And League Of German Maidens
-Marched In Parades Accompanied By Loud Bands
-Physically Fit
-Leisure Time Devoted To The Nazis
-Trained In Use Of Arms (Boys)
-First Loyalty Is Pledged To Hitler And Not One’s Family

Youth Opposition
• Nazis Restricted And Finally Stopped All Youth Movements
• Joining A Nazi Movement Was Made Compulsory In 1939
• Movements Led By Very Rigid Youth Leaders
• Banned All Meetings Outside Of Movements

Swing Movement
• Made Up Of Middle Class Teenagers (Membership)
• Defied By Listening To English Sons At Parties
• Danced To Banned Jittterburg And Jazz Music
• Accepted Jews At Clubs
• Befriended Jews
• Liberated Thinking
• Long Hair/ Exaggerated English Clothes

Edelweiss Pirates
• Working Class Teenagers
• Operated Under Different Names
• Attended Camps
• Sang Hitler Youth Songs After Changing Lyrics - To Mock The Regime
• Attacked Hitler Youth Members
• Defied All Traditional Values
• Liberal In Thought
• Nazis Ignored Or Arrested Most Of The Rebels To Exploit Them As Army Servicemen
• Cologne- Pirates Defied Authorities And Sheltered Deserters And Escaped Prisoners
And So: 12 Were Publicly Hanged

Role Of Women
1. Hitler Popularized The Role Of Women As Wife And Mother
2. Patriarchal Society (Male Dominated)
3. 1930s Women Were Resented For Working (Believed To Keep Men Out Of Jobs)
4. Women Wearing Trousers Were Denounced Through Propaganda
5. To Increase Population, Hitler Offered Rewards To Couples To Bear 8 Children (Gold Cross, Special Seats At Nazi Meetings)
6. Propaganda Supported Nazi Ideals And View On The German Woman
7. German Maiden League Focused On Women Being Physically Fit With Good Housekeeping Skills
8. Children Conceived (Bearing Children) Outside Of Marriage Were Sheltered
9. Unwed Pregnant Women Were Housed In Hostels
10. Prominent Positions For Women Within Nazi Government, But Were Not Allowed To Be Part Of Important Decisions
11. Nazis Women’s Organization Enabled Many Women To Travel Extensively
12. However, Overall Women Were Discouraged From Being Working Women. Had To Give Up Jobs
13. Employment Opportunities Were Subjected To Gender Bias
14. However In The 1930s, Women Had To Work Since Most Men Were In The Army

Impact Of WW II
• Food And Clothes Rationed From 1939
• Till 1941 Germans Benefitted From The Flow Of Luxury Goods From Captured Territories
• During The Invasion Of Russia Germans Engaged In An Expensive War Which Cut Down Food Supplies, People Worked Longer Hours, Recycled Rubbish
• People Were Encouraged To Donate For The German War Effort In Russia
• 1942 The Final Solution Began- Killed Millions Of Jews
• Armament Expenditures Increased And Arms Were Over-Produced, Postal Services Shut, But Cinemas Kept Functional For Propaganda
• Women Were Drafted Into Labour Force
• SS Became A State Within The German State- Owned Industries And Arms
• People Began To Hide Food Resources, Did Not Give The Hitler Salute Or Attend Rallies
• Himmler Contacted Allies To Negotiate Peace Terms
• In 1942 Allies Began Bombing Major Cities
• 1942- Bombing Of Industrial Zones
• Germany Adopted The War Strategy ‘Blitz-Krieg’ - Attack (Air And Land) At Lightning Speed
• Dresden Bombed In 1945- Civilians Forced Into Submission, Industrial Output Crippled

State In Germany
• Lack Of Food Supplies
• Heavy Loss Of Human Life
• Heavy Loss Of Property
• Germans Fled The Country To Escape From Russian Invasion

Persecution Of Minorities
• Nazis Persecuted The Jews, Gypsies, Homosexuals, Handicapped
• Euthanasia Programme
• Gypsies Killed
• Families With Hereditary Illnesses Persecuted
• Men And Women Who Did Not Conform To Nazi Ideals Were Forcefully Sterilized

Anti-Semitism
• Jews Forced To Live In Ghettos
• Treated Unjustly In Courts
• Blamed For Death Of Jesus Christ
• Jews Were Well Educated, Held Better Paid Jobs, More Successful
• Jews Were Blamed For Germany’s Defeat During Wwi
• Jews Banned From Certain Civil Services
• SS And SA Attacked Jewish Owned Establishments And Forced Them To Shut Down
• Jews Forced To Wear Star Of David For Identification

Nuremburg Laws
• Denied Citizenship To Jews
• Propaganda Spread Anti-Jewish Messages
• Jews Were Denied Jobs
• They Were Not Served Even If They Paid As Customers
• Jewish Children Subjected To Humiliation And Segregation

1938 Kristall Nacht,

• Jew Killed A German Diplomat In Paris
• SS Used Pickaxes And Hammers To Destroy Jewish Businesses
• 91 Jews Killed, 20,000 Taken To Concentration Camps, Synagogues Burned

Ghettos:
• 1939 Germany Began Germanizing Western Poland
• Poles Replaced With Germans In Occupied Territories
• Jews Forced To Live In Ghettos (Unhygienic, Small Homes)
• Able Bodied Were Used For Labour And Others Were Killed

Mass Murders (1941)
• Germany Invaded Ussr
• Captured Over 3 Million Russian Jews
• SS Ordered To Shoot All Communist Party Members And Jews From Russia And Other Occupied Territories

Final Solution To The Jewish Question (1942)
• Himmler Led The SS And Gestapo
• Ordered To Kill All Jews
• Special Labour Camps Built
• Able-Bodied Used For Slave Labour And Worked To Death Or Gassed Or Shot
• Young, Old, Sick Were Killed

Was The Final Solution Planned? Who Is To Blame?
• Evidence - Speeches Made By Hitler Convincing And Discussing The Final Solution
• No Documented Evidence/Records/Orders
• Documents Hinting At The Protocol Of The Final Solution Were Relatively Fewer Than Others Discovered
• Civil Service Officers/Offices Maintained Record Of The Jews
• Police Force Involved In Mindless Arrests
• SS Carried Out Executions From And At The Collection Points
• Armed Forces Were Also Involved
• Industries Had Their Own Labour Camps And Produced Cyclone B Gas For The Gas Chambers
• German Citizens Were Aware Of The Holocaust

Resistance
• Many Jews Escaped
• Many Managed To Live Undercover And Support Resistance
• Gad Beck Led Resistance In Berlin- Was Captured In 1945 But Rescued By Jewish Regiment Of The Red Army
• Groups Of Jewish Fighters Were Formed And Remained Operative Through The War Years
• Jews Also Led Resistance In Other German Occupied Territories
• Jews In The Warsaw Ghetto Held Out Against The Nazis For Four Weeks
• Armed Uprisings In 5 Concentration Camps
• Greek Jews Blew Up Gas Ovens
• Many Germans And Non-Jews Helped Them Hide/ Escape
• Oskar Schindler Created A Worker’s List To Get Jews Out Of Germany
• Raoul Wallenberg Got Us And Swedish Passports For The Jews Trapped In Hungary