Influence of migration on birth rate and death rate on patterns of population growth and population decline
Since Migration is the movement of people or individuals from one area to another, it always has an impact on the population of regions. There are two types of migration, In-migration & out-migration which result in population growth and decline respectively. In-migration usually has a positive effect on the population of a region, while out-migration tends to diminish the size of populations. Push or pull factors associated with any area cause or instigate migration.
Birth rate: In-migration or people migrating to a particular area would result in an increase in the birth rate of that area or region. Majority of the migrant population would comprise of young individuals or adults (characterised by high rates of fertility) who seek better opportunities and facilities. Due to these increased levels of fertility and the presence of pull factors like better healthcare and medical facilities, the birth rate of the affected region would definitely increase.
Death rate: Economically developed countries or regions would attract a lot of immigrants due to pull factors like abundance or resources (like food and water) and superior healthcare would decrease levels of mortality. The introduction of advanced technology and scientific techniques in the fields of healthcare and medicine have reduced death rates in developed countries.
Birth rate: Out-migration or individuals moving out of a certain area or region decreases the overall population of that region. Due to the presence of push factors like political instability, inadequate healthcare, unemployment and constant strife or conflict in a particular region, people opt to migrate or settle in other locations resulting in diminished populations which in turn decreases the birth rate. Underdeveloped regions characterised by poor or inefficient healthcare is one of the main reasons for low birth rates.
Death rate: Out-migration occurs due to people being ‘pushed out’ or forced to migrate. The presence of unfavourable conditions or push factors (like inefficient healthcare) have a negative effect on the population of a certain region. Usually underdeveloped or backward countries suffer and lose a large chunk of their population due to all the migration. Inadequate and inferior healthcare is one of the major reasons for high death rates. Insufficient research in the fields of medicine due to unstable or poor economy never bodes well for the population of a particular country or region.
Economically developed countries like U.S.A, Britain and France etc. have high birth rates and low mortality levels due to superior or advanced scientific research done in the fields of technology and healthcare. These nations have the ability and abundance of resources to sustain their growing populations. Pull factors like stable political and social conditions and adequate infrastructure are always encourage growth in population. Underdeveloped nations or LDC’s(less developed countries) like Afghanistan, Bhutan and Bangladesh etc. have a lot of push factors like inadequate infrastructure, insufficient healthcare, unstable economies resulting in low birth rates and increased mortality or death rates.