The United Nations
The League of Nations having 58 members was founded in 1919 and was considered an international organization, much before the UN or the United Nations was planned. It was responsible mainly for ensuring cooperation, security and peace between different countries across the world. It was a successful organization. However success of this organization waned as Japan, Italy and Germany, which were the Axis Powers gained influence which in turn led to the beginning of the World War II in the year 1939. To state the cooperation of the Allies including the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United States, Great Britain and other countries during the Second World War, an official declaration was made. Until the year 1945, especially at the time when drafting of the United Nations Charter took place in San Francisco, California, at the UN Conference, the United Nations, was not founded officially. Many of the non-governmental organizations and fifty nations attended the Conference and signed the United Nations
When Was The United Nations Founded
The United Nations is basically an organization at an international level. Headquarters of the United Nations are located in New York City. Franklin D. Roosevelt, President of United States and Winston Churchill, coined the name, ‘United Nations’. During the Second World War, on 1st January 1942 this name was used by the United Nations in the Declaration. A pledge was taken by twenty six countries that their governments would continue their fight against the Axis Powers.
The United Nations Charter was ratified by the United States, China, United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, France and other signatories in majority and on 24th October 1945, the United Nations came into existence officially. Each year, the United Nations celebrates the United Nations Day on 24th October.
Aims And Objectives Of The United Nations
• The United Nations has been exclusively designed for the purpose of enforcing laws at international level, social progress, freedom, justice, security, development in the economy and human rights for all people living in the member states and thus making them easier for various nations across the world.
• In the United Nations Charter, a number of principles of the UN have been enshrined, mainly the affirmation of rights of humans, saving the future generations from unrest and war and ensuring that all people enjoy equal rights.
How Does The United Nations Function
The United Nations has been divided in five different branches. The UN General Assembly is one of the branches. This is the main representative and decision making body in the United Nations. Main responsibility of this assembly is to uphold the principles of the United Nations through its recommendations and policies. It comprises member states. From the member states, a president is elected who heads the United Nations. Each year from September to December, the member states meet the UN President.
The International Court of Justice is the other branch of the United Nations which is located in the Netherlands at The Hague. It takes up the responsibility of UN judicial matters.
The United Nations also has another branch, which is the UN Security Council. This council comprises of 10 rotating members and 5 permanent members. Of all the branches, this is one of the most powerful. If in case the given mandates are not complied with, the UN Security Council has the power for authorizing the deployment of troops of the UN member states. Besides this, it has the power of enforcing penalties on other nations. During conflicts it also has the power to mandate a ceasefire.
The other branch is the Economic and Social Council which helps the General Assembly to promote social and economic development besides maintaining cooperation between the member states.
The Secretariat is also a branch of the United Nations which the Secretary General heads. It is mainly responsible for providing information, studies and other data whenever it is required by other branches of the UN for their meetings.
Who Are The Members Of The United Nations
The members of the United Nations are fully independent and recognized states. Outlines have been provided in the UN Charter that, for becoming a UN member, it is necessary for the state to accept all obligations as well as peace outlined in the Charter. For carrying out any action, they should be very willing to satisfy those particular obligations. First a recommendation is made by the Security Council after which the General Assembly carries out the final decision on whether the member should be admitted to the UN or not.
Recent Crisis Handled By The United Nations
The primary function of the UN is maintaining security and peace for all the member states. It has forces for maintaining peace which are supplied to it by the member states, even if it does not maintain an army of its own. Peacekeepers are sent to enforce a ceasefire to regions where an armed conflict has taken place. The Nobel Peace Prize was won by the peacekeeping force, for its actions, in the year 1988.
Millennium Development Goals have been established by the United Nations for the future. A number of international organizations and many of the UN member states have been in agreement that they would achieve goals related to reducing infant mortality, poverty reduction, fighting epidemics and diseases and in the process develop a global partnership by the year 2015, in terms of global development. A number of goals pertaining to the agreement have been achieved by some member states while there are others who have to yet achieve the goals. Over the years, the UN has attained success for sure. The goals are expected to truly realize in the near future.
The United Nations has also provided warnings on the food crisis looming all over the world during the year 2013. Grain reserves the globe over have critically hit very low levels. Climatic conditions are no longer reliable besides heat waves are adversely affecting growth of crops. Grain reserves have been eroded due to harvests failing in Ukraine, United States and many other countries, the UN warns.